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Recent Advances in Constructing Three-Dimensional Graphitic Carbon Nitride Based Materials and Their Applications in Environmental Photocatalysis, Photo-Electrochemistry, and Electrochemistry

W. Xia1, X. Li1, M. Cheng1, W. P. Xiong1, B. Song1, Y. Liu1, Y. Yang1, W. J. Wang1, S. Chen1, G. M. Zeng1 *, and C. Y. Zhou1 *

  1. College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University and Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, P.R. China

*Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 731-88822754; fax: +86 731-88823701. E-mail address: (G. M. Zeng).
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 731-88822754; fax: +86 731-88823701. E-mail address: (C. Y. Zhou).


Recently, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), a promising visible-light-driven semiconductor material, has received enormous attention for photocatalytic water splitting, organic pollutant degradation, and CO2 reduction. However, the photocatalytic activity of bulk g-C3N4 is restricted due to the insufficient light adsorption, ineffective utilization of photogenerated charge carriers, and low specific surface area. Compared with bulk g-C3N4, the three-dimensional graphitic carbon nitride based materials (3D CNBMs) have outstanding physical and chemical characteristics, such as large specific area, plentiful active sites, and excellent electrical conductivity. This article reviews the latest achievements in 3D CNBMs, and presents the state-of-the-art advances in the synthetic methods of 3D CNBMs. Meanwhile, various applications of 3D CNBMs in photocatalysis, photo-electrochemistry, and electrochemistry are systematically reviewed and discussed. In addition, possible improvements and perspectives of 3D CNBMs are proposed. This review aims to summarize a panorama of the up-to-date processes of 3D CNBMs in environmental and energy applications and provide some innovative thoughts to accelerate the ground-breaking research and development of 3D CNBMs for a sustainable future.

Keywords: environmental or energy applications, g-C3N4, photo-electrochemistry, synthetic methods, three-dimensional

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